# Section 4.4 — Regression with categorical predictors#

This notebook contains the code examples from Section 4.4 Regression with categorical predictors from the No Bullshit Guide to Statistics.

## Notebook setup#

# load Python modules
import os
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Figures setup
plt.clf()  # needed otherwise sns.set_theme doesn't work
from plot_helpers import RCPARAMS
# RCPARAMS.update({'figure.figsize': (10, 3)})   # good for screen
RCPARAMS.update({'figure.figsize': (5, 1.6),     # good for print
'text.usetex': True})
sns.set_theme(
context="paper",
style="whitegrid",
palette="colorblind",
rc=RCPARAMS,
)

%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'retina'

# Where to store figures
DESTDIR = "figures/lm/categorical"

<Figure size 640x480 with 0 Axes>

# set random seed for repeatability
np.random.seed(42)
#######################################################

import statsmodels.formula.api as smf
from patsy import dmatrix

doctors = pd.read_csv("../datasets/doctors.csv")


## Example 1: binary predictor variable#

lm3 = smf.ols("score ~ C(loc)", data=doctors).fit()
lm3.params

Intercept        52.956522
C(loc)[T.urb]    -6.992885
dtype: float64

dmatrix("C(loc)", doctors)[0:5]

array([[1., 0.],
[1., 1.],
[1., 1.],
[1., 1.],
[1., 0.]])


## Dummy coding for categorical predictors#

groups = ["A", "B", "A", "C", "C", "B"]
df = pd.DataFrame({"group":groups})
df

group
0 A
1 B
2 A
3 C
4 C
5 B
dmatrix("C(group)", df)

DesignMatrix with shape (6, 3)
Intercept  C(group)[T.B]  C(group)[T.C]
1              0              0
1              1              0
1              0              0
1              0              1
1              0              1
1              1              0
Terms:
'Intercept' (column 0)
'C(group)' (columns 1:3)


## Example 2: predictors with three levels#

lm4 = smf.ols("score ~ C(work)", data=doctors).fit()
lm4.params

Intercept         46.545455
C(work)[T.eld]     4.569930
C(work)[T.hos]     2.668831
dtype: float64

lm4.rsquared, lm4.fvalue, lm4.f_pvalue

(0.007721762574919189, 0.5953116925291042, 0.5526627461285702)

doctors["work"].head(7)

0    hos
1    cli
2    hos
3    eld
4    cli
5    cli
6    hos
Name: work, dtype: object

dmatrix("C(work)", doctors)

DesignMatrix with shape (156, 3)
Intercept  C(work)[T.eld]  C(work)[T.hos]
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               0               1
1               1               0
1               0               0
1               0               0
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               0               0
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               0               0
1               1               0
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               0               0
1               0               0
1               0               0
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               1               0
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               1               0
1               0               1
1               1               0
1               0               1
1               0               0
1               0               1
1               1               0
[126 rows omitted]
Terms:
'Intercept' (column 0)
'C(work)' (columns 1:3)
(to view full data, use np.asarray(this_obj))


## Example 3: mix of numerical and categorical predictors#

lm5 = smf.ols("score ~ C(loc) + C(work) + alc + weed + exrc", data=doctors).fit()
lm5.params

Intercept         62.933582
C(loc)[T.urb]     -5.399745
C(work)[T.eld]     2.956527
C(work)[T.hos]     1.456601
alc               -1.776628
weed              -0.863727
exrc               1.780325
dtype: float64

lm5.summary()
lm5.diagn

{'jb': 2.3215538201644974,
'jbpv': 0.3132427248919844,
'skew': 0.2320927864116041,
'kurtosis': 3.3764224756333547,
'omni': 2.7903807171542074,
'omnipv': 0.2477858637130687,
'condno': 50.50763092507675,
'mineigval': 15.375354453197517}


## Everything is a linear model#

### One-sample t-test as a linear model#

from scipy.stats import ttest_1samp

ksample04 = kombucha[kombucha["batch"]==4]["volume"]

ttest_1samp(ksample04, popmean=1000)

TtestResult(statistic=3.087703149420272, pvalue=0.0037056653503329618, df=39)

# Prepare zero-centered data (volume - 1000)
kdat04 = pd.DataFrame()
kdat04["zcvolume"] = ksample04 - 1000

# linear model with only an intercept
lmk = smf.ols("zcvolume ~ 1", data=kdat04).fit()
lmk.tvalues[0], lmk.pvalues[0], lmk.df_resid
#######################################################

(3.0877031494203044, 0.003705665350332633, 39.0)


### Two-sample t-test as a linear model#

#### East vs. West electricity prices#

from scipy.stats import ttest_ind

pricesW = eprices[eprices["loc"]=="West"]["price"]
pricesE = eprices[eprices["loc"]=="East"]["price"]
tstat, pval = ttest_ind(pricesW,pricesE,equal_var=True)
tstat, pval

(5.022875513276465, 0.00012497067987678488)

lme = smf.ols("price ~ C(loc)", data=eprices).fit()
lme.tvalues[1], lme.pvalues[1]

(5.02287551327646, 0.00012497067987678602)

from ministats import plot_lm_ttest

with plt.rc_context({"figure.figsize":(4,4)}):
ax = plot_lm_ttest(eprices, x="loc", y="price")

Error in callback <function _draw_all_if_interactive at 0x7f72af502550> (for post_execute):

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/pyplot.py:120, in _draw_all_if_interactive()
118 def _draw_all_if_interactive():
119     if matplotlib.is_interactive():
--> 120         draw_all()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/_pylab_helpers.py:132, in Gcf.draw_all(cls, force)
130 for manager in cls.get_all_fig_managers():
131     if force or manager.canvas.figure.stale:
--> 132         manager.canvas.draw_idle()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2082, in FigureCanvasBase.draw_idle(self, *args, **kwargs)
2080 if not self._is_idle_drawing:
2081     with self._idle_draw_cntx():
-> 2082         self.draw(*args, **kwargs)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:400, in FigureCanvasAgg.draw(self)
396 # Acquire a lock on the shared font cache.
397 with RendererAgg.lock, \
398      (self.toolbar._wait_cursor_for_draw_cm() if self.toolbar
399       else nullcontext()):
--> 400     self.figure.draw(self.renderer)
401     # A GUI class may be need to update a window using this draw, so
402     # don't forget to call the superclass.
403     super().draw()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/formatters.py:340, in BaseFormatter.__call__(self, obj)
338     pass
339 else:
--> 340     return printer(obj)
341 # Finally look for special method names
342 method = get_real_method(obj, self.print_method)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:169, in retina_figure(fig, base64, **kwargs)
160 def retina_figure(fig, base64=False, **kwargs):
161     """format a figure as a pixel-doubled (retina) PNG
162
163     If base64 is True, return base64-encoded str instead of raw bytes
(...)
167         base64 argument
168     """
--> 169     pngdata = print_figure(fig, fmt="retina", base64=False, **kwargs)
170     # Make sure that retina_figure acts just like print_figure and returns
171     # None when the figure is empty.
172     if pngdata is None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:152, in print_figure(fig, fmt, bbox_inches, base64, **kwargs)
149     from matplotlib.backend_bases import FigureCanvasBase
150     FigureCanvasBase(fig)
--> 152 fig.canvas.print_figure(bytes_io, **kw)
153 data = bytes_io.getvalue()
154 if fmt == 'svg':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2342, in FigureCanvasBase.print_figure(self, filename, dpi, facecolor, edgecolor, orientation, format, bbox_inches, pad_inches, bbox_extra_artists, backend, **kwargs)
2336     renderer = _get_renderer(
2337         self.figure,
2338         functools.partial(
2339             print_method, orientation=orientation)
2340     )
2341     with getattr(renderer, "_draw_disabled", nullcontext)():
-> 2342         self.figure.draw(renderer)
2344 if bbox_inches:
2345     if bbox_inches == "tight":

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

<Figure size 400x400 with 1 Axes>


#### Urban vs. Rural doctors#

from scipy.stats import ttest_ind

scoresR = doctors[doctors["loc"]=="rur"]["score"]
scoresU = doctors[doctors["loc"]=="urb"]["score"]

tstat, pval = ttest_ind(scoresU, scoresR, equal_var=True)
tstat, pval

(-1.9657612140164198, 0.05112460353979369)

lm3 = smf.ols("score ~ C(loc)", data=doctors).fit()
lm3.tvalues[1], lm3.pvalues[1]

(-1.9657612140164218, 0.051124603539793465)

with plt.rc_context({"figure.figsize":(5,4)}):
ax = plot_lm_ttest(doctors, x="loc", y="score")

Error in callback <function _draw_all_if_interactive at 0x7f72af502550> (for post_execute):

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/pyplot.py:120, in _draw_all_if_interactive()
118 def _draw_all_if_interactive():
119     if matplotlib.is_interactive():
--> 120         draw_all()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/_pylab_helpers.py:132, in Gcf.draw_all(cls, force)
130 for manager in cls.get_all_fig_managers():
131     if force or manager.canvas.figure.stale:
--> 132         manager.canvas.draw_idle()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2082, in FigureCanvasBase.draw_idle(self, *args, **kwargs)
2080 if not self._is_idle_drawing:
2081     with self._idle_draw_cntx():
-> 2082         self.draw(*args, **kwargs)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:400, in FigureCanvasAgg.draw(self)
396 # Acquire a lock on the shared font cache.
397 with RendererAgg.lock, \
398      (self.toolbar._wait_cursor_for_draw_cm() if self.toolbar
399       else nullcontext()):
--> 400     self.figure.draw(self.renderer)
401     # A GUI class may be need to update a window using this draw, so
402     # don't forget to call the superclass.
403     super().draw()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/formatters.py:340, in BaseFormatter.__call__(self, obj)
338     pass
339 else:
--> 340     return printer(obj)
341 # Finally look for special method names
342 method = get_real_method(obj, self.print_method)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:169, in retina_figure(fig, base64, **kwargs)
160 def retina_figure(fig, base64=False, **kwargs):
161     """format a figure as a pixel-doubled (retina) PNG
162
163     If base64 is True, return base64-encoded str instead of raw bytes
(...)
167         base64 argument
168     """
--> 169     pngdata = print_figure(fig, fmt="retina", base64=False, **kwargs)
170     # Make sure that retina_figure acts just like print_figure and returns
171     # None when the figure is empty.
172     if pngdata is None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:152, in print_figure(fig, fmt, bbox_inches, base64, **kwargs)
149     from matplotlib.backend_bases import FigureCanvasBase
150     FigureCanvasBase(fig)
--> 152 fig.canvas.print_figure(bytes_io, **kw)
153 data = bytes_io.getvalue()
154 if fmt == 'svg':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2342, in FigureCanvasBase.print_figure(self, filename, dpi, facecolor, edgecolor, orientation, format, bbox_inches, pad_inches, bbox_extra_artists, backend, **kwargs)
2336     renderer = _get_renderer(
2337         self.figure,
2338         functools.partial(
2339             print_method, orientation=orientation)
2340     )
2341     with getattr(renderer, "_draw_disabled", nullcontext)():
-> 2342         self.figure.draw(renderer)
2344 if bbox_inches:
2345     if bbox_inches == "tight":

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

<Figure size 500x400 with 1 Axes>


### One-way ANOVA as a linear model#

from scipy.stats import f_oneway

scoresH = doctors[doctors["work"]=="hos"]["score"]
scoresC = doctors[doctors["work"]=="cli"]["score"]
scoresE = doctors[doctors["work"]=="eld"]["score"]

f_oneway(scoresH, scoresC, scoresE)

F_onewayResult(statistic=0.5953116925291182, pvalue=0.5526627461285608)

lm4 = smf.ols("score ~ C(work)", data=doctors).fit()
lm4.fvalue, lm4.f_pvalue

(0.5953116925291042, 0.5526627461285702)

from ministats import plot_lm_anova

with plt.rc_context({"figure.figsize":(6,6)}):
ax = plot_lm_anova(doctors, x="work", y="score")

Error in callback <function _draw_all_if_interactive at 0x7f72af502550> (for post_execute):

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/pyplot.py:120, in _draw_all_if_interactive()
118 def _draw_all_if_interactive():
119     if matplotlib.is_interactive():
--> 120         draw_all()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/_pylab_helpers.py:132, in Gcf.draw_all(cls, force)
130 for manager in cls.get_all_fig_managers():
131     if force or manager.canvas.figure.stale:
--> 132         manager.canvas.draw_idle()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2082, in FigureCanvasBase.draw_idle(self, *args, **kwargs)
2080 if not self._is_idle_drawing:
2081     with self._idle_draw_cntx():
-> 2082         self.draw(*args, **kwargs)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:400, in FigureCanvasAgg.draw(self)
396 # Acquire a lock on the shared font cache.
397 with RendererAgg.lock, \
398      (self.toolbar._wait_cursor_for_draw_cm() if self.toolbar
399       else nullcontext()):
--> 400     self.figure.draw(self.renderer)
401     # A GUI class may be need to update a window using this draw, so
402     # don't forget to call the superclass.
403     super().draw()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/formatters.py:340, in BaseFormatter.__call__(self, obj)
338     pass
339 else:
--> 340     return printer(obj)
341 # Finally look for special method names
342 method = get_real_method(obj, self.print_method)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:169, in retina_figure(fig, base64, **kwargs)
160 def retina_figure(fig, base64=False, **kwargs):
161     """format a figure as a pixel-doubled (retina) PNG
162
163     If base64 is True, return base64-encoded str instead of raw bytes
(...)
167         base64 argument
168     """
--> 169     pngdata = print_figure(fig, fmt="retina", base64=False, **kwargs)
170     # Make sure that retina_figure acts just like print_figure and returns
171     # None when the figure is empty.
172     if pngdata is None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:152, in print_figure(fig, fmt, bbox_inches, base64, **kwargs)
149     from matplotlib.backend_bases import FigureCanvasBase
150     FigureCanvasBase(fig)
--> 152 fig.canvas.print_figure(bytes_io, **kw)
153 data = bytes_io.getvalue()
154 if fmt == 'svg':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2342, in FigureCanvasBase.print_figure(self, filename, dpi, facecolor, edgecolor, orientation, format, bbox_inches, pad_inches, bbox_extra_artists, backend, **kwargs)
2336     renderer = _get_renderer(
2337         self.figure,
2338         functools.partial(
2339             print_method, orientation=orientation)
2340     )
2341     with getattr(renderer, "_draw_disabled", nullcontext)():
-> 2342         self.figure.draw(renderer)
2344 if bbox_inches:
2345     if bbox_inches == "tight":

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

<Figure size 600x600 with 1 Axes>

# Construct data as a pd.DataFrame
a = np.random.normal(0, 1, 20)
b = np.random.normal(-2, 1, 20)
c = np.random.normal(3, 1, 20)
d = np.random.normal(1.5, 1, 20)

df = pd.DataFrame()
df["group"] = ["a"]*20 + ["b"]*20 + ["c"]*20 + ["d"]*20
df["value"] = np.concatenate([a, b, c, d])

with plt.rc_context({"figure.figsize":(8,6)}):
ax = plot_lm_anova(df, x="group", y="value")

Error in callback <function _draw_all_if_interactive at 0x7f72af502550> (for post_execute):

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/pyplot.py:120, in _draw_all_if_interactive()
118 def _draw_all_if_interactive():
119     if matplotlib.is_interactive():
--> 120         draw_all()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/_pylab_helpers.py:132, in Gcf.draw_all(cls, force)
130 for manager in cls.get_all_fig_managers():
131     if force or manager.canvas.figure.stale:
--> 132         manager.canvas.draw_idle()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2082, in FigureCanvasBase.draw_idle(self, *args, **kwargs)
2080 if not self._is_idle_drawing:
2081     with self._idle_draw_cntx():
-> 2082         self.draw(*args, **kwargs)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:400, in FigureCanvasAgg.draw(self)
396 # Acquire a lock on the shared font cache.
397 with RendererAgg.lock, \
398      (self.toolbar._wait_cursor_for_draw_cm() if self.toolbar
399       else nullcontext()):
--> 400     self.figure.draw(self.renderer)
401     # A GUI class may be need to update a window using this draw, so
402     # don't forget to call the superclass.
403     super().draw()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:255, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
254 try:
--> 255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:415, in check_output(timeout, *popenargs, **kwargs)
413     kwargs['input'] = empty
--> 415 return run(*popenargs, stdout=PIPE, timeout=timeout, check=True,
416            **kwargs).stdout

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:493, in run(input, capture_output, timeout, check, *popenargs, **kwargs)
491     kwargs['stderr'] = PIPE
--> 493 with Popen(*popenargs, **kwargs) as process:
494     try:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:858, in Popen.__init__(self, args, bufsize, executable, stdin, stdout, stderr, preexec_fn, close_fds, shell, cwd, env, universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, restore_signals, start_new_session, pass_fds, encoding, errors, text)
855             self.stderr = io.TextIOWrapper(self.stderr,
856                     encoding=encoding, errors=errors)
--> 858     self._execute_child(args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
859                         pass_fds, cwd, env,
860                         startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
864                         restore_signals, start_new_session)
865 except:
866     # Cleanup if the child failed starting.

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/subprocess.py:1720, in Popen._execute_child(self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, pass_fds, cwd, env, startupinfo, creationflags, shell, p2cread, p2cwrite, c2pread, c2pwrite, errread, errwrite, restore_signals, start_new_session)
1719         err_msg = os.strerror(errno_num)
-> 1720     raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg, err_filename)
1721 raise child_exception_type(err_msg)

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'latex'

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

RuntimeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/formatters.py:340, in BaseFormatter.__call__(self, obj)
338     pass
339 else:
--> 340     return printer(obj)
341 # Finally look for special method names
342 method = get_real_method(obj, self.print_method)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:169, in retina_figure(fig, base64, **kwargs)
160 def retina_figure(fig, base64=False, **kwargs):
161     """format a figure as a pixel-doubled (retina) PNG
162
163     If base64 is True, return base64-encoded str instead of raw bytes
(...)
167         base64 argument
168     """
--> 169     pngdata = print_figure(fig, fmt="retina", base64=False, **kwargs)
170     # Make sure that retina_figure acts just like print_figure and returns
171     # None when the figure is empty.
172     if pngdata is None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/IPython/core/pylabtools.py:152, in print_figure(fig, fmt, bbox_inches, base64, **kwargs)
149     from matplotlib.backend_bases import FigureCanvasBase
150     FigureCanvasBase(fig)
--> 152 fig.canvas.print_figure(bytes_io, **kw)
153 data = bytes_io.getvalue()
154 if fmt == 'svg':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:2342, in FigureCanvasBase.print_figure(self, filename, dpi, facecolor, edgecolor, orientation, format, bbox_inches, pad_inches, bbox_extra_artists, backend, **kwargs)
2336     renderer = _get_renderer(
2337         self.figure,
2338         functools.partial(
2339             print_method, orientation=orientation)
2340     )
2341     with getattr(renderer, "_draw_disabled", nullcontext)():
-> 2342         self.figure.draw(renderer)
2344 if bbox_inches:
2345     if bbox_inches == "tight":

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:95, in _finalize_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
93 @wraps(draw)
94 def draw_wrapper(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs):
---> 95     result = draw(artist, renderer, *args, **kwargs)
96     if renderer._rasterizing:
97         renderer.stop_rasterizing()

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/figure.py:3175, in Figure.draw(self, renderer)
3172         # ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
3174 self.patch.draw(renderer)
-> 3175 mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(
3176     renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite)
3178 for sfig in self.subfigs:
3179     sfig.draw(renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/image.py:131, in _draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, parent, artists, suppress_composite)
129 if not_composite or not has_images:
130     for a in artists:
--> 131         a.draw(renderer)
132 else:
133     # Composite any adjacent images together
134     image_group = []

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/artist.py:72, in allow_rasterization.<locals>.draw_wrapper(artist, renderer)
69     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:
70         renderer.start_filter()
---> 72     return draw(artist, renderer)
73 finally:
74     if artist.get_agg_filter() is not None:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:3028, in _AxesBase.draw(self, renderer)
3025     for spine in self.spines.values():
3026         artists.remove(spine)
-> 3028 self._update_title_position(renderer)
3030 if not self.axison:
3031     for _axis in self._axis_map.values():

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_base.py:2963, in _AxesBase._update_title_position(self, renderer)
2960 bb = None
2961 if (ax.xaxis.get_ticks_position() in ['top', 'unknown']
2962         or ax.xaxis.get_label_position() == 'top'):
-> 2963     bb = ax.xaxis.get_tightbbox(renderer)
2964 if bb is None:
2965     if 'outline' in ax.spines:
2966         # Special case for colorbars:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1337, in Axis.get_tightbbox(self, renderer, for_layout_only)
1334     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
1335 ticks_to_draw = self._update_ticks()
-> 1337 self._update_label_position(renderer)
1339 # go back to just this axis's tick labels
1340 tlb1, tlb2 = self._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2353, in XAxis._update_label_position(self, renderer)
2349     return
2351 # get bounding boxes for this axis and any siblings
2352 # that have been set by fig.align_xlabels()
-> 2353 bboxes, bboxes2 = self._get_tick_boxes_siblings(renderer=renderer)
2355 x, y = self.label.get_position()
2356 if self.label_position == 'bottom':

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:2149, in Axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings(self, renderer)
2147 axis = getattr(ax, f"{axis_name}axis")
2148 ticks_to_draw = axis._update_ticks()
-> 2149 tlb, tlb2 = axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(ticks_to_draw, renderer)
2150 bboxes.extend(tlb)
2151 bboxes2.extend(tlb2)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in Axis._get_ticklabel_bboxes(self, ticks, renderer)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/axis.py:1316, in <listcomp>(.0)
1314 if renderer is None:
1315     renderer = self.figure._get_renderer()
-> 1316 return ([tick.label1.get_window_extent(renderer)
1317          for tick in ticks if tick.label1.get_visible()],
1318         [tick.label2.get_window_extent(renderer)
1319          for tick in ticks if tick.label2.get_visible()])

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:959, in Text.get_window_extent(self, renderer, dpi)
954     raise RuntimeError(
955         "Cannot get window extent of text w/o renderer. You likely "
956         "want to call 'figure.draw_without_rendering()' first.")
958 with cbook._setattr_cm(self.figure, dpi=dpi):
--> 959     bbox, info, descent = self._get_layout(self._renderer)
960     x, y = self.get_unitless_position()
961     x, y = self.get_transform().transform((x, y))

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:378, in Text._get_layout(self, renderer)
375 ys = []
377 # Full vertical extent of font, including ascenders and descenders:
--> 378 _, lp_h, lp_d = _get_text_metrics_with_cache(
379     renderer, "lp", self._fontproperties,
380     ismath="TeX" if self.get_usetex() else False, dpi=self.figure.dpi)
381 min_dy = (lp_h - lp_d) * self._linespacing
383 for i, line in enumerate(lines):

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:97, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache(renderer, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
94 """Call renderer.get_text_width_height_descent, caching the results."""
95 # Cached based on a copy of fontprop so that later in-place mutations of
96 # the passed-in argument do not mess up the cache.
---> 97 return _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
98     weakref.ref(renderer), text, fontprop.copy(), ismath, dpi)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/text.py:105, in _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi)
101 @functools.lru_cache(4096)
102 def _get_text_metrics_with_cache_impl(
103         renderer_ref, text, fontprop, ismath, dpi):
104     # dpi is unused, but participates in cache invalidation (via the renderer).
--> 105     return renderer_ref().get_text_width_height_descent(text, fontprop, ismath)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backends/backend_agg.py:226, in RendererAgg.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
224 _api.check_in_list(["TeX", True, False], ismath=ismath)
225 if ismath == "TeX":
--> 226     return super().get_text_width_height_descent(s, prop, ismath)
228 if ismath:
229     ox, oy, width, height, descent, font_image = \
230         self.mathtext_parser.parse(s, self.dpi, prop)

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/backend_bases.py:645, in RendererBase.get_text_width_height_descent(self, s, prop, ismath)
641 fontsize = prop.get_size_in_points()
643 if ismath == 'TeX':
644     # todo: handle properties
--> 645     return self.get_texmanager().get_text_width_height_descent(
646         s, fontsize, renderer=self)
648 dpi = self.points_to_pixels(72)
649 if ismath:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:368, in TexManager.get_text_width_height_descent(cls, tex, fontsize, renderer)
366 if tex.strip() == '':
367     return 0, 0, 0
--> 368 dvifile = cls.make_dvi(tex, fontsize)
369 dpi_fraction = renderer.points_to_pixels(1.) if renderer else 1
370 with dviread.Dvi(dvifile, 72 * dpi_fraction) as dvi:

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:300, in TexManager.make_dvi(cls, tex, fontsize)
298     with TemporaryDirectory(dir=cwd) as tmpdir:
299         tmppath = Path(tmpdir)
--> 300         cls._run_checked_subprocess(
301             ["latex", "-interaction=nonstopmode", "--halt-on-error",
302              f"--output-directory={tmppath.name}",
303              f"{texfile.name}"], tex, cwd=cwd)
304         (tmppath / Path(dvifile).name).replace(dvifile)
305 return dvifile

File /opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.8.18/x64/lib/python3.8/site-packages/matplotlib/texmanager.py:259, in TexManager._run_checked_subprocess(cls, command, tex, cwd)
255     report = subprocess.check_output(
256         command, cwd=cwd if cwd is not None else cls.texcache,
257         stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
258 except FileNotFoundError as exc:
--> 259     raise RuntimeError(
260         'Failed to process string with tex because {} could not be '
261         'found'.format(command[0])) from exc
262 except subprocess.CalledProcessError as exc:
263     raise RuntimeError(
264         '{prog} was not able to process the following string:\n'
265         '{tex!r}\n\n'
(...)
272             exc=exc.output.decode('utf-8', 'backslashreplace'))
273         ) from None

RuntimeError: Failed to process string with tex because latex could not be found

<Figure size 800x600 with 1 Axes>